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181 PIVA, Michael J. Borrowing Process : Public Finance in the Province of Canada, 1840-1867. pbk.
University of Ottawa Press, Ottawa, 1992, ISBN:0776603434 
PIVA, Michael J. The Borrowing Process : Public Finance in the Province of Canada, 1840-1867 . Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, (1992). Pp. (10),[xi]-xvi,[1]-233,(1). 8vo, illustrated red card covers with white lettering to front and spine. "The author shows how transportation was more important than trade to Canadian public finance, and how Canadian politicians and financiers managed to get Britain to cover their deficiencies and pay for transportation improvements." - from the rear cover. Contents: 1. Financing theUnion: The Problem; 2. Financing the Union: The Solution; 3. From Canals t o Railways; 4. The Railway Mania; 5. Managing the Budget; 6. Sorting Out the Financial Legacy; 7. Trade, Finance, and the Limits of Frontier Growth; 8. Towards Confederation; 9. Conclusion. With two appendices, detailing the Public Accounts for the Province of Canada. Very good. 15.00

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182 PORTEOUS, J. Douglas Canal Ports : The Urban Achievement of the Canal Age. in dj
Academic Press, London, 1977, 
PORTEOUS, J. Douglas. Canal Ports : The Urban Achievement of the Canal Age.London : Academic Press, (1977). Pp 249. Illustrated with photos and maps to text. 8vo, green cloth. "Canal Ports examines the role of canal companies in the growth of new towns, especially ports at the tideway terminals of major canals. Professor Porteous devotes separate chapters to Runcorn, Stourport, Ellesmere Port and Goole..." -from the dust jacket. Cocked, slight wear to edges, bookplate to front free paste-down, ow vg in spine faded, nicked, slightly dampstained dj. 75.00

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183 POWELL, J. W. United States Geological Survey) Thirteenth Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey to the Secretary of the Interior 1891-92: Part III
Government Printing Office, 1893, 
POWELL, J. W. Thirteenth Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey to the Secretary of the Interior 1891-92 : Part III : Irrigation. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1893. Pp. 486. Illustrated with numerous maps (several in colour) and a large number of in-text drawings and diagrams. One large folded map in rear pouch. 4to, dark brown cloth, decorative gilt ill. to front, gilt titles to spine. Part III only, of three parts. Spine ends bumped and beginning to fray, wear to all edges, boards rubbed with some light scuffing to the rear, folded map in pouch has a one inch tear at the centre fold, some dampstaining and browning to the verso which does not appear to affect the map itself, else vg. 175.00

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184 PRATT, Frances Canal Architecture in Britain : An introduction to the fascinating buildings and structures of our waterways
British Waterways Board, 0, ISBN:0903218135 
PRATT, Frances. Canal Architecture in Britain : An introduction to the fascinating buildings and structures of our waterways. (British Waterways Board), n.d. [mid-1970s]. Pp (2),3-39,(1). Illustrated. 4to, illustrated olive brown stapled card covers. Contents : The Canal Builders; First Principles; The Second Phase; Iron and the Victorian Industrial Age; The WorkingEnvironment; From Construction to Conservation; Resurrection. Unevenly sun ned, rubbed, else very good. 12.50

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185 PRICHARD, Mari CARPENTER, Humphrey. Thames Companion. 2d ed pb.
Oxford University Press, 1981, 
PRICHARD, Mari and Humphrey CARPENTER. A Thames Companion. Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981. Pp 182. 8vo, ill. card covers. "Thisinformal guide to the world's most famous river progresses from its disput ed source in the hills of Gloucestershire to the tideway, still busy with commercial traffic, and from its first records in Roman times to the presentday. It discusses the Thames as a commercial waterway, linked by a series of canals to England's main manufacturing centres; as a stimulus for artists and writers living on its banks; as the scene of important developments in the building of locks, weirs, mills, and bridges; as the home of major figures of English history, royal and common; and as a place of sport and relaxation." -from the cover. Vg. 10.00

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186 PRITCHARD, Jean Welland Canal : Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow - in Story and Picture
Jean Pritchard Publications / Rewbury Printing, Port Robinson, Ontario, 1975, 
PRITCHARD, Jean. The Welland Canal : Yesterday, Today. Port Robinson, Ontario : Jean Pritchard Publications, 1975. Revised Edition. Printed by RewburyPrinting Company Limited. Pp [1]-28. Maps and over 25 b&w photos in text. 8vo, stapled cardcovers with colour photo on front. Cover title: The Welland Canal in Story and Picture. Very good. 20.00

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187 PUDNEY, John. DE LESSEPS, Ferdinand) RIOU, Edouard Suez : De Lesseps' Canal. UK in dj
Dent, 1969, 
PUDNEY, John. Suez: De Lesseps' Canal. With one map and thirty-nine contemporary engravings of the construction of the canal by Edouard Riou. L.: Readers Union, J. M. Dent & Sons, (1969). Readers Union Edition. Pp 242, including port. frontis. Illustrated with drawings to text. 8vo, olive green cloth. This is an account of the construction of the Suez Canal as spearheaded by French diplomat Ferdinand de Lesseps. Namestamp, else vg in rubbed and nicked dj. 15.00

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188 QUENBY, Ron. TELFORD, Thomas). Thomas Telford's Aqueducts on the Shropshire Union Canal. First Edition, signed
Swan Hill Press, Shrewsbury, 1992, ISBN:1853102466 
(TELFORD, Thomas). QUENBY, Ron. Thomas Telford's Aqueducts on the Shropshire Union Canal. (Shrewsbury) : Swan Hill Press, (1992). First Edition. Pp (10),1-26. Illustrated. Map. Index. 8vo, illustrated blue card covers, letered in black and white. "Thomas Telford's five great aqueducts on the Shropshire Union Canal justify his reputation as one of the finest civil engineers. Built 200 years ago during the canal boom, the aqueducts show the Scotsman's mastery of the revolutionary new material of cast-iron. At Pontcysylltein North Wales he built the highest iron-trough aqueduct in the world, now world famous and still in use with narrow boats floating high above the De e Valley. At Chirk, Longdon on Tern, Nantwich and Stretton he built others which are prized for their originality and attractive design. " (from the back cover). Contents : I. Monarchs, Machines and Mania: The Historical Background. II. A Principle Entirely New: Longdon on Tern Aqueduct. III. Romantic and Very Perfect Chirk Aqueduct. IV. Aloft in Air: Pontcysyllte Aqueduct. V. Final Flourish: Nantwich, Stretton and Other Aqueducts. VI. Impressingthe Beholder: The Aqueducts in the Public Eye. VII. From Trade to Tourism: The Aqueducts Through the Years. Very good. Signed without inscription by the author. 15.00

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189 RAUDZENS, George British Ordinance Department and Canada's Canals 1815-1855
Wilfrid Laurier University Press, Waterloo, 1970, ISBN:0889200718 
RAUDZENS, George. British Ordinance Department and Canada's Canals 1815-1855. Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. Pp. [4] v-xi [1] 1-204. 8vo grey cloth covers. Chapters: Introduction; the ordnance Department; The Canadian Setting; The Struggle for Military canals, 1814-1825; Launching the Rideau Project; The Expansion of the Rideau Project; Completion of the Canaland Financial Chaos; Conflict Over Ordnance Property; Dissolution; The Ord nance Impact on Canada. Vg, no dj. 40.00

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Confederation of the British North American Provinces, RAWLINGS, Thomas
190 RAWLINGS, Thomas Confederation of the British North American Provinces
Sampson Low, 1865, 1865 
RAWLINGS, Thomas. The Confederation of the British North American Provinces; Their Past History and Future Prospects; including also British Columbia & Hudson's Bay Territory; with a Map, and Suggestions in Reference to the True and Only Practicable Route from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. London : Sampson Low, Son, and Marston, 1865. First Edition. Pp (2),[iii]-xi,(1),[1]-244,+ 4 plates + large folding map: "A Statistical Map of the British North American Confederacy and United States including British Columbia and Hudson's Bay Territory Showing the True and Only Practicable Route from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean" [i.e. a map of most of Canada and the continental United States] : with "Map and Profile of the Valley of the St. Lawrence River & Lake Country Extending from Lake Superior to the Gulf of St. Lawrence" along top edge (680 mm x 530 mm). Tables in the text throughout. 8vo, original reddish brown pressed cloth, gilt lettering to spine.

O'Dea 703, TPL 4442, Lande 1408, Sabin 68006, Soliday IV: 483; Peel 206, Lowther 260, Waterston p.128.
Not in Streeter or Howes.
A German version is noted in Smith, Pacific Northwest Americana 8508.
Also see another similar much shorter English publication covering Minnesota and British Columbia in John F. Williams' Bibliography of Minnesota p.12.

This book includes two views of Victoria, British Columbia, along with a view of St.Paul, Minnesota and a farm scene.

"I purpose, in the following pages, to treat of the migratory movements of the human race chronologically — of the discoveries on the continent of America — of the early history, progress, present condition, and future prospects of all that territory lying north of the 49th parallel, the Lakes and the St. Lawrence, and extending from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean, and which will constitute the proposed British North American Confederacy.
I desire to prove by that history, that progress, that prosperous present, and by that prospective future, what a splendid territory Great Britain possesses, and how proud she should be of so thriving, so energetic, so ambitious a people.
I shall devote a few chapters to the consideration of the "Western States of the United States; I shall show by statistical tables their progress, their development, and their inherent agricultural and mineral wealth.
The subject of a railway communication between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans will also claim attention ; and it will be my endeavour to point out that route which, by its natural advantages, offers the most feasible and least expensive means of crossing the continent." - from the preface.

[Part I].

1. Introduction: The British Colonies ; their Extent, Population, Imports and Exports — The proposed British North American Confederation; their Extent, Population, Imports and Exports ; their prospective Wealth — Confederation a Means of Security — The Great Railway Route from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean — The Duty of England in reference to the Colonies;
2. Migratory Movements of the Human Race: Early Efforts of the Explorer, Geographer, and Navigator — America in its Primitive State — The Causes which operated to develop the Migratory Movements of Mankind, and the Progress in Discovery made by various Expeditions;
3. The Discovery of America : Scandinavian Records — Eric the Red Speculation of Europeans — Columbus and his Voyages — Balboa, Magellan, Cortez — Pizarro and his Comrades- Sir Francis Drake — Expeditions to the Arctic Ocean and their Result;
4. The Progress of Colonization : The Colonization of Newfoundland, New Brunswick, Prince Edward's Island, Nova Scotia, and the Canadas (Upper and Lower);
5. Statistics of Newfoundland, Prince Edward's Island, and Nova Scotia : Newfoundland : Agriculture ; Government ; Fisheries ; Shipping ; Imports and Exports ; Population — Prince Edward's Island : Industrial Resources; . Imports and Exports ; Counties, Towns, and Population ; Education ; Government — Nova Scotia : The Seasons ; Botanical Productions ; Shipping ; Agriculture ; Fisheries ; Commerce ; Population; Quadrupeds, Birds and Fish; Crown Lands; Education; Government; Halifax; Gold-Fields ; Minerals;
6. Description of New Brunswick: New Brunswick — Rivers and Counties — Capabilities of the Province — Forests — Fisheries — Minerals — Fruit and Vegetables — Manufactures— Counties — Commerce — Finances — Government — Public Schools — Militia — Census of 1861 — Agriculture; 7. The Canadas [Quebec and Ontario]: The Lakes, Rivers, and Canals — The Pictured Rocks — The Great Lakes — Mineral Wealth — Commerce, Shipping, Trade, and Statistics— Rivers — The Rapids — Canadian Song — Emigration— Montreal, Toronto, Quebec, Kingstown, Hamilton, Cobourg, &c. — The Farming Interest of Canada — Agricultural Statistics and Tables'
8. Hudson's Bay Territory: The Hudson's Bay Company: its Charter, its Profits, its Furs — The Fur Trade : its Extent and Value — The Territory : its Government, its Physical Features, its Plains, Lakes, and Rivers — The Saskatchewan Valley — Testimony of Captain Blakiston, Captain Palisser, Sir George Simpson, Monsieur Bourgeau, Father De Smet, Professor Hind, and others in reference to its Agricultural Resources — The Railway Route — Its Minerals, Grass, Fish, Animals, Birds, Roots, Berries, &c. — The Red River Settlement — American Trade — Homes for the Emigrant — The Company's Lands in the Market — Crossing the Rocky Mountains — Progress of the West - The Future Policy of the Hudson's Bay Company;
9. British Columbia and Vancouver's Island : The Rocky Mountains: their Extent, their Altitude, their Passes — British Columbia : Early Discovery, Boundary-line, Lakes, Rivers, &c.; Gold and the Gold-mines; Discovery of the Gold ; Testimony of Governor Douglas, G. Forbes Macdonald, Esq., and the Times Correspondent — Gold on Fraser River — Richness of the Mines— Mines on Thompson River — Lillooett Gold-mines - Cariboo Gold River — Steele's Company — Labour in British Columbia — Export of Gold in 1863 — Fertility of Soil in the Gold Neighbourhood — Progress of the Colony — Vancouver's Island: its Agricultural Resources, Coal-beds, Importance as a Naval Station, Imports and Exports; Prospecting, Panning, and Washing Gold;
10. The Railway System of North America: Early Travelling — Steam a Revolutionizer — Length of Railway in England, France, and the United States — Opening of the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad — Professor Mitchell's Testimony as to their "Value — Increase in Traffic of American Railways — Railway System of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick — Canadian Railways — The Inter-Colonial Railway — General Review of the Subject— The Duty of England towards the proposed British North American Confederacy

Part II.
1. The United States of America : Progress and Extent of Territory — Her Natural Beauties, Lakes, Rivers, Prairies, and Mountains —English Appreciation of America, and her Sympathy — Her Poets, Orators, Historians and Artists — Peace and Reciprocity — The Blessings of Peace - The Reciprocity Treaty - Its Results and Mutual Benefits - Its Continuation desirable;
2. The United States: Primary Object of the Book — Captain Palisser's Testimony — Route wholly through British Territory impossible — The only feasible Route, by way of Michigan and Minnesota to Hudson's Bay — Wealth of the Western States — Ohio : Products of Agriculture; Railways — Indiana : Area, Population, Progress of the State, Agricultural Products, Manufactures, and Railways — Michigan : General Statistics, Products of Agriculture, the Cereal Products, Miscellaneous Crops, and Railroads— Wisconsin : Topographical Features, Railroads, Products of Agriculture, Valuation and Taxation — Iowa : Agricultural Wealth, Increase, Railroads — Illinois : Agricultural Progress, Valuation and Taxation, Railways, and Number, Extent, and Cost of all the Railways in the United States;
3. Minnesota: Extent of Territory — St. Paul, the Capital—Physical Districts — Falls of St. Anthony and its Water Power — Mineral Resources—Sandstone, &c — Salt Springs The Relations of Minnesota in Reference to Internal Commerce — Rapid Progress of Cultivation — Agricultural Productions — Progress of Population — The Future of Minnesota — Testimony of Hon. W. H. Seward — Conclusion — Railway through Minnesota Illinois Central Railroad — The Value of the Lands — Value of the Illinois Lands;
4. Emigration : Advice to Emigrants to Canada or the United States — Progress of Emigration to America — Comparative Increase in Immigration from 1861 to 1864 — Emigration from Germany — Laws of Migration — Inducements to Settle in America — Stock-Breeding and Raising in Illinois.

A. The British American Federation — Resolutions Adopted at a Conference of Delegates from the Provinces of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick, and the Colonies of Newfoundland, and Prince Edward's Island;
B. Increased Production of Cultivated Plants near the Northernmost Limit of their Growth — Extracts from an Article upon the "Acclimating Principle of Plants", by Dr. Forry;
C. Professor M.F. Maury and Pacific Railroads — The Physical, Commercial, and Military Necessity of two Railroads, one North and one South;
D. Table of Distances, Fares, &c., between Great Britain and North America — Distances to Chicago, Illinois, from Quebec, New York, Boston, and New Orleans — Table of Distances and Fares in the United States and Canada, and Grand Trunk Railway; E. Itineraries of Routes from St. Paul to Pembina, Fort Garry, Fort Ellice, Edmonton House, and the Gulf of Georgia, British Columbia — Table of Distances from St. Paul to Pembina : From St. Paul to Lake Floyd ; Lake Floyd to Pembma ; Red Lake River to Pembina — Plain Trail : Route of Woods and Pope ; Route of Ellis Smith and Party — Various Routes : Saux Rapids to Sioux Wood River ; St. Cloud to Georgetown ; St. Cloud to Goose River; Detroit Lake to Georgetown, &c.— Railroad Lines — Table of Distances from Breckinridge to Pembina — Routes and Portions of Routes to the North and North- West of Pembina;
F. St. Paul and Pacific Railroad — Statement of the Hon. E. Rice, State Senator;
G. Value of Moneys in Canada — Colonial, British, American — Value of English Coin throughout Canada.
With index.
Mottled fading to covers, else very good, solid and clean. 900.00

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191 RECLUS, Elisee Ocean, Atmosphere and Life : Being the Second Volume of a Descriptive History of the Life of the Globe. First American Edition
Harper & Brothers, New York, 1873, 1873 
RECLUS, Ιlisιe. The Ocean, Atmosphere and Life : Being the Second Volume of a Descriptive History of the Life of the Globe. Illustrated by Two Hundred and Fifty Maps or Figures, and Twenty-Seven Page Maps Printed in Colors. New York : Harper & Brothers, Publishers, 1873. First American Edition. Pp (4),[7]-534,(2, publisher's ads),(2). 8vo (158 x 238 mm), brown cloth with bevelled edges, with gilt lettering to spine, gilt globe on front board.

Jacques Ιlisιe Reclus (b. March 15, 1830, Sainte-Foy-la-Grande, France - d. July 4, 1905, Torhout, Belgium)

Contents :

Part I. The Ocean.
Book I. The Seas.
1. General Considerations.

2. Oceanic Basins. — Depth of the Seas. — Level of the Surface of the Ocean.

3. Composition of Sea- water. — Specific Weight. — Salt Marshes, Natural and Artificial. — Various Substances. — Differences of Saltness. — Marine Salt.

4. Various colours of Sea- water. — Reflections, Transparency, and Proper Colour. — Temperature of the Depths of the Sea.

5. Formation of Ice. — Ice-floes, Fields of Ice, and Icebergs. — Ice in the Baltic and the Black Sea.

6. Waves of the Sea. — Regular and Irregular Undulations. — Height of the Waves — Their Size and Speed. — Ground-swell. — Coast-waves.

Book II. Currents.
7. Great Movements of the Sea. — General Causes of Currents. — The Five Oceanic Rivers.

8. The Gulf-stream.— Influence of this Current on Climate.— Its Importance to Commerce.

9. Currents of the South Atlantic and the Indian Ocean. — Double Eddy of the Pacific Ocean.

10. Lateral Eddies. — Rennell's Current. — Counter-current in the Sea of the Antilles. — Equilibrium of the Waters in the Baltic, the Bosphorus, at the Entrances to the Mediterranean and the Red Sea. — Exchange of Water and Salt between the Seas.

Book III. The Tides.

11. Oscillations of the Level of the Seas.— Theory of the Tides.

12. Theory of Whewell on the Origin and Propagation of Tidal Waves. — Origin of the Tide in each Oceanic Basin. — "Establishment" of Ports. — " Cotidal " Lines.

13. Apparent Irregularities of the Tides. — Extraordinary size of the Tidal Wave in certain Bays. — Interference of Ebb and Flow. — Diurnal Tides. — Inequalities of Successive Tides.

14. Tidal Cuncnts. — Races and Whirlpools. — Tidal Eddies.— River Tides. 15. Ebb and Flow in Lakes and Inland Seas.— Currents of the Euripus. — Scylla and Charybdis.

Book IV. The Shores and Islands.
16. Incessant Modifications of the Coast-line. — The Fjords of Scandinavia and other Countries near the Poles.

17. Filling up of the Fjords by Marine and Fluvial Alluvium.

18. Destruction of Cliffs.- The Coasts of the Channel.— The Straits of Dover. — Action of Shingle and Sand. — Giants' Cauldrons. — Spouting Wells on the Coasts.— Tidal Wells.

19. Undermining of Rocks. — Varied aspect of Cliffs. — Platforms at their Bases. — Resistance of the Coasts. — Breakwaters formed by the Rubbish. — Heligoland. — Destruction of Low Shores.

20. Normal Form of Shores. — Curves of "Greatest Stability." — Formation of New Shores. — Coast Ridges and Sand-banks. — Inland Bays.

21. Shallows of the Coast. — Deposit from Calcareous Rocks. — Appearance of Strands and Beaches.

22. Origin of Islands. — Islands of Continental Origin. — Rocks of the Shores. — Islands of Depression, Elevation, and Erosion. — Islands of Oceanic Origin.— Atolls and Volcanos.

Book V. The Dunes.
23. Dunes resulting from the decomposition of Rocks. — Formation of Moving Dunes on the Sea-shore. — Symmetrical disposition of Ridges of Sand.

24. Height of the Hillocks. — Advance of the Dunes. — Displacement of "'Etangs." — Disappearance of Villages.

25. Obstacles opposed by Nature to the Progress of Dunes.— Fixation of the Sands by Seeds.

Part II. The Atmosphere and Meteorology.
Book I. The Air and the Winds.

1. Air the Agent of the Vital Circulation of the Planet. — Phenomena of Reflection and Refraction. — Mirage.

2. Weight of the Air. — Height of the Upper Strata. — Barometric Measures.

3. Mean Pressure of the Atmosphere under various Latitudes. — Density of the Air in the Northern Hemisphere. — Diurnal Oscillations of the Barometrical Column. — Annual Oscillations. — Irregular Variations. — Iso-barometric Lines.

4. General Law of the Circulation of Winds. — Trade-winds from the North-east and South-east. — Equatorial Calms. — Oscillation of the System of Winds.

5. Counter Trade-winds or Eeturning Winds.

6. The Trade-winds of the Continents. — The Monsoons. — Etesian Winds.

7. Land and Sea Breezes. — Winds from the Mountains. — Solar Breezes — Local Winds — The Simoon, Scirocco, Foehn, Tempests, and Mistral.

8. Zone of Variable Winds. — Struggle of Opposing Winds. — Mean Direction of the Atmospheric Currents. — Law of Gyration.

Book II. Hurricanes and Whirlwinds.
9. Aerial Eddies. — Cyclones of the Equatorial Regions. — The " Great Hurricane".
10. Speed of the Revolving Masses of Air. — Speed of the Cyclone. — Fall of the Barometric Column. — Irregularities of the Wind in the Path of the Cyclone.

11. Spiral of the Hurricanes in the Two Hemispheres. — Theory of Cyclones. — Nautical Instructions to avoid Hurricanes.

12. Eddies of Tempests. — Whirlwinds. Book III. Clouds and Rain.

13. The Vapor of Water. — The Moisture of the Air. — Absolute Moisture and relative Moisture.

14. Formation of Mists and Clouds. — Height, Thickness, Form, and Aspect of Clouds.

15. Influence of the Winds on the Formation of Snow and Rain. — Distribution of Rain over Plains and Mountains.

16. Tropical Rains. — Rainy and Dry Seasons — Periodicity of Rains.

17. Rains beyond the Tropics. — Winter Rains. — Rains of Spring and Autumn. — Summer Rains.— Rains of the Polar Regions.

18. Countries without Rain. — Geological action of Rains. — Contrast of the two Hemispheres.

Book IV. Thunder-storms, Auroras, Maganetic Currents.
19. Height of Thunder-clouds. — Distribution of Thunder-storms in various Regions of the Earth. — Cause of these Phenomena.

20. Polar Auroras.

21. Terrestrial Magnetism. — Declination, Inclination, and Intensity of the Movements of the Needle. — Magnetic Poles and Equator. — Isogonal Lines and their Secular, Annual, and Diurnal Variations. — Isoclinal Lines. — Isodynamic Lines.

Book V. Climates.
22. Solar Heat. — Irregularities of Local Climates. — Equalization of the Temperature below the Surface of the Ground.

23. Contrast between the Climates of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, between those of the Eastern and Western Sides of Continents, those of the Coasts and the Interior of Countries, and of Mountains and Plains.

24. Isothermal Lines. — Thermal Equator — Poles of Cold. — Increase of Temperature toward the Poles. — Open Seas.

25. Extremes of Temperature. — Isochimenal and Isotheral Lines. — Daily and monthly Variations. — Decrease of Warmth in the upper Strata of the Air. — Variations of Climate during the Historical Period.

Part III. Life.

Book I. The Earth and Its Flora.
1. The Assemblage of living Creatures. — Number of Vegetable Species. — Proportion of Dicotyledons, Monocotyledons, and Cryptogams. — Forests and Savannas.

2. Influence of Temperature, Moisture, and Solar Kays on Vegetation. — Distribution of Plants.

3. Particular Habitats of Species. — Salt-water and Fresh-water Plants. — Littoral Species. — Parasites. — Terrestrial Species. — Influence of the Soil on Vegetation. — Plants associated together. — Sea-weed. — Extent of Areas.

4. Contrast of the Floras in the different parts of the World. — Insular and continental Floras. — Increasing richness of Vegetation in the direction from the Poles to the Equator.

5. Distribution of Vegetation on the Slopes of Mountains. — Mingling of the different Floras. — Upper limits of the Plants in various parts of the World. — Irregularities in the Vertical Distribution of Plants.

6. Unconnected Species. — Displacement of Areas in consequence of Geological Changes. — Plants of Great Britain. — Naturalization. — Incessant Modification of Floras.

Book II. The Land and Its Fauna.
7. Origin of Life. — Species of Animals. — Multitude of Organisms. — Contrasts of Land and Sea.

8. The Oceanic Fauna.

9. Influence of Climate and physical Conditions on the Species of Animals.

10. Food of Animal Species. — Contrast of Faunas. — Areas of Habitation.— Changes in the Surface of the Areas. — Birth and Disappearance of Species.

11. Great Terrestrial Faunas. — Homoiozoic Zones.

12. Distribution of Species on the Slopes of Mountains and in the Depths of the Sea.

13. Geological Labors of certain Animal Species. — Coral Reefs and Islands.

Book III. Earth and Man.
14. The Influence of Nature on the Destiny of Mankind. — Antiquity of the Human Race on the Earth. — Monogenists and Polygenists. — Fusion of Human Races.

15. Influence of Climate. — Tropical Zone. — Frigid Zone. — Temperate Zone.

16. Influence of the raised Outline of the Earth on Mankind. — Tablelands, Mountains, Hills, and Plains.

17. Influence of the Sea and running Waters. — Traveling and Commercial Nations. — Islands and Islanders.

18. Blending of different Climates. — The Influence of Civilization on the Features of a Country.

19. The course of History. — Harmony existing between Countries and the Nations inhabiting them.

Book IV. The Work of Man.
20. Reaction of Man on Nature. — Exploration of the Globe — Voyages of Discovery. — Ascents of Mountains.

21. Reclamation of the Earth by Cultivation. — Ancient and modern Irrigation.

22. The Culture of Marshes. — Drainage of the Ground in the Country and Towns.

23. The Draining of Lakes and Inlets of the Sea. — The Lake of Copais, the Lake of Fucino, the Sea of Haarlem, the Zuyder Zee. — Polders. — The Purification of Saline Marshes.

24. Dikes on the Sea-shore. — Points of Defense. — Point-de-Grave.

25. Natural and artificial Ways of Communication. — Sea-shores, Deserts, and Savannas. — Rivers, Canals, and Railways. — Bridges and Viaducts. — The cutting through Isthmuses. — The Suez Canal. — The Isthmuses of Central America.

26. The industrial Power of Man. — The Electric Telegraph. — Possession taken of the Sea. — Cultivation of Oysters.

27. Comparative Harmlessness of Hurricanes. — Prevision of Weather. — Modification of Climates effected by the Labor of Man.

28. Influence of Man on the Flora and Fauna of a Country. — Encroachment effected by the more common Species. — Extension given by Agriculture to certain cultivated Species.

29. Influence of Man on the Beauty of the Earth. — Disfigurement and Embellishment of the Land. — The diverse Action of different Nations. — The Appreciation of Nature. — The Progress of Mankind.


Light wear to spine ends and corners, name, some spotting, else very good. 100.00

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Building of the Cape Cod Canal 1627-1914.  no dj. , REID, William James
192 REID, William James Building of the Cape Cod Canal 1627-1914. no dj.
Boston University, 1961, 
REID, William James. The Building of the Cape Cod Canal 1627-1914; based on a dissertation by William James Reid for the Boston University Graduate School. (S.l.): Privately Printed, 1961. Pp 131. Illustrated. 8vo, blue green cloth. An elegant history of efforts to build the canal, culminating in its opening to traffic in 1914. The book emphasizes the role played in its completion by the promoter August Belmont (grandson of Commodore Perry, builder of New York subways, great horseman and breeder of Man O' War); indeed the book was printed for Mrs. August Belmont, and has her card ("With the compliments of Mrs. August Belmont") laid in. Folding map in 2 parts, cloth slightly rubbed, gift inscription, else vg. 90.00

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193 Republic of Egypt - Ministry for Foreign Affairs White Paper on the Nationalisation of the Suez Maritime Canal Company
Government Press, Cairo, 1956, 
(Republic of Egypt - Ministry for Foreign Affairs). White Paper on the Nationalisation of the Suez Maritime Canal Company. Published by the Governmentof Egypt on the 12th of August 1956. Cairo : Government Press, 1956. Pp (4 ),3-72,(2). 8vo, stapled white cardcovers. Not in Papadakis & Glassner. Sections include" "The Suez Canal is an Integral Part of Egypt"; "Egyptian Sovereignty over the Canal"; "It Was Egypt Who Determined the International Navigation Regime in the Canal"; "It Was Egypt Who Initiated and Fixed Fees for Transitting the Canal"; "Repercussions to Nationalisation"; &c. Also includes many documents such as : The Original Firman of Concession Granted bythe Viceroy of Egypt Mohamed Said, to Ferdinand de Lesseps, 1854; Charter of Concession and Book of Charges for the Construction and Working of the Suez Grand Maritime Canal and Dependencies; Agreement of February 22, 1866, Determing the Final Terms as Ratified by the Sublime Porte; &c. Light coverwear, else very good. 28.00

Price: 28.00 CDN
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194 REYBURN, Wallace RENNIE, John) Bridge Across the Atlantic : The Story of John Rennie. 1st in dj.
George G. Harrap & Co., Ltd., London, 1972, ISBN:0245508880 
REYBURN, Wallace. Bridge Across the Atlantic : The Story of John Rennie . London: George G. Harrap & Co., Ltd., (1972). First UK Printing. Pp. (6),[7]-160, + 24 p. of black and white plates. Illustrated. Large 8vo, maroon cloth with gilt lettering to spine. Previous owner's name stamp to front pastedown, else vg in nicked, spine- and edge-sunned, price-clipped dj. 25.00

Price: 25.00 CDN
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195 RICHARDS, Eric. CHECKLAND, S.G. Leviathan of Wealth : The Sutherland Fortune in the Industrial Revolution.
Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1973, ISBN:0710074557 
RICHARDS, Eric. The Leviathan of Wealth : The Sutherland Fortune in the Industrial Revolution, foreword by Professor S.G. Checkland. London : Routledge & Kegan Paul, (1973). Pp. (6), vii-xx, (2), 3-315, (1) + (4) p. of plates. Illustrations, maps. 8vo, black cloth with gilt spine titles. "Early in the nineteenth century, the ducal family of Sutherland was the richest noblehouse in Britain. The Leviathan of Wealth is the story of how that remarka ble fortune was deployed in the age of the Industrial Revolution. Eric Richards points out that much of the Sutherland wealth was sunk into landed estates, respectably so in the English Midlands, and with considerable notoriety in the execution of the so-called Highland Clearances in the north of Scotland. In England the Sutherlands were also involved in the transport revolution, and this was the source of much of their wealth. They were caught in the great battles between the canals and the first railways. In Scotland,they used the proceeds from their diverse English enterprises to finance a mbitious amd controversial schemes for the economic development of their enormous Highland estates. The Sutherland Clearances were the unhappy outcomeof misplaced good intentions, of crude planning methods, and of impossible circumstances. This book provides a clear picture of the operation of weal th and power in early nineteenth-century Britain and the limits of social engineering in the pursuit of material progress." -- from dust jacket. Contents: Part One. Leviathan of Wealth ; I. The House of Sutherland ; II. JamesLoch, 'The Sutherland Metternich' ; Part Two. The House of Sutherland and the Coming of the Railways ; III. The Problematical Inheritance ; IV. The Challenge and the Response ; V. The Way of Compromise ; VI. A Position of Influence ; VII. The Edge and the Precipice ; VIII. A Golden Opportunity ; IX. Transport Capitalism in the Early 1830s ; X. Uneasy Co-existance ; XI. Into and Out of the Vortex ; Part Three. The Sutherland Clearances ; XII. Sutherlands and the Highland Problem ; XIII. William Young and Patrick Sellar ; XIV. The Reaffirmation of the Sutherland Policy ; XV. Capital, Labour andPrices in the New Economy ; XVI. Progress, Poverty and Criticism ; XVII. F amine and the Final Years ; Part Four. Perspectives ; XVIII. The uses of anAristocratic Fortune. Very good in dust jacket. 25.00

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196 Rideau Canal, Ontario Canadian Heritage GALT, George McGHEE, Robert Thank You, Colonel By : The Rideau Canal at 150. An article in Canadian Heritage : The Heritage Canada Foundation Newsmagazine, May 1982,
Heritage Canada Foundation, Ottawa , 1982, 
(Rideau Canal, Ontario). “Thank You, Colonel By : The Rideau Canal at 150.”An article in Canadian Heritage : The Heritage Canada Foundation Newsmagaz ine, May 1982, pp 18-21, with 6 illustrations and a map. Ottawa : The Heritage Canada Foundation, 1982. Pp 1-44. Illustrated. Triple Column. 4to, illustrated orange stapled wrappers. Also : "High Profile for Ontario's Heritage” (by George Galt, pp 6-7, with 3 illustrations); “Tong Ji Men : Victoria builds a gate of harmonious interest” (pp 8-9, with 5 illustrations); “The Buffalo Jumps : The fall of the prairie bison” (by Robert McGhee, pp 14-16,with 4 illustrations); “The Seer of City Planning : Jane Jacobs and the de ath and life of great Canadian cities” by George Galt, pp 11-12, with 2 illustrations); “The Saint John's Market : Selling vegetables, plastic Beethovens and flexibility” [New Brunswick] (by Linda Biesenthal, pp 37-38, with 3illustrations); and more. Mailing label, else very good. 12.00

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197 RITTER, Alfred H. Transportation Economics of the Great Lakes - St. Lawrence Ship Canal.
Great Lakes - St. Lawrence Tidewater Association, Washington, D.C., 1925, 
RITTER, Alfred H. Transportation Economics of the Great Lakes – St. Lawrence Ship Canal. (Washington, D.C.) : Great Lakes – St. Lawrence Tidewater Association, November, 1925. Pp [1]-276,+ 4 folding maps + 2 folding charts. Illustrated. Maps. 8vo, maroon cloth, gilt lettering to spine. Contents : 1.Practicability of the Waterway for Ocean Vessels. 2. Dimensions of Ocean V essels. 3. Cost of Operating Ocean Vessels to Lake Ports. 4. Feasible Ratesvia the Great Lakes – St. Lawrence Waterway. 5. Territory Tributary to Gre at Lakes – St. Lawrence Ship Canal. 6. The Traffic Available for the Waterway. 7. Effect of the Waterway upon the Grain Trade of the United States andCanada. 8. The Load Factor. 9. Present Lakes-Ocean Travel. 10. Influence o f the Panama Canal on the Interior. 11. Summary. Spine rubbed, spine ends worn and corners bumped, else very good. 25.00

Price: 25.00 CDN
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198 ROLT, L.T.C. Industrial Archaeology Series, 1. Navigable Waterways. First Edition in dustjacket.
Longmans, London, 1971, 
ROLT, L.T.C. Navigable Waterways. (London) : Longmans, (1969). First Printing. Pp. (6),vii-xiii,(3),1-188,(2), + 12 p. of black and white plates. Illustrated. 8vo, green cloth with gilt lettering to spine. Volume 1 in the Industrial Archaeology Series. General Editor: L.T.C. Rolt. Rolt & Thynne, (eds.), L.T.C. Rolt.: A Bibliography 09. Lionel Thomas Caswall Rolt (usually abbreviated to Tom Rolt or L. T. C. Rolt) (b. February, 11 1910, Chester, England – d. May 9, 1974, Stanley Pontlarge, Gloucestershire). "This is the story of the growth of this first transport system and its engineers from the 17th century river improvers through Smeaton, Jessop, Brindley and Rennieto Thomas Telford, who built his last canal when the Railway Revolution ha d already begun. The greater part of the network of waterways which these men built still survives as an outstanding monument of bygone civil engineering skill. As a result of competition, first from the railways and later from the roads, these waterways sank into obscurity and were almost forgotten. Since the last war, however, there has been a remarkable revival of interest as more and more people began using the waterways for pleasure cruising." -from the dustjacket. Contents: 1. River Improvement before 1700; 2. Towards the Canal Era, 1700-1760; 3. The First Canals; 4. The Coast to Coast Routes; 5. The Waterways of the West; 6. The Midlands Network; 7. The Last Canals; 8. Forgotten Waterways; 9. Water Supply and Conservation; 10. Traffic and Motive Power. Name and bookplate to flyleaf, else very good in taped-down, price-clipped dustjacket. 20.00

Price: 20.00 CDN
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199 RUSSELL, Ronald Lost Canals and Waterways of Britain. pb.
Sphere Books, 1983, 
RUSSELL, Ronald. Lost Canals and Waterways of Britain. L: Sphere Books, (1983). Pp 255, [8] pp plates. 8vo, ill. card covers. A travellers' guide to British canals, with references to Ordnance Survey maps, historical background, and- most importantly- tips on local pubs. Slightly rubbed, else vg. 8.50

Price: 8.50 CDN
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200 SABATKE, Mark D. Discovering the C&O Canal and adjacent Potomac River. in dustjacket.
Schreiber Publishing Inc., Rockville, MD, 2003, ISBN:1887563679 
SABATKE, Mark D. Discovering the C&O Canal and adjacent Potomac River. (Rockville, MD: Schreiber Publishing Co., 2003). Pp. (8),9-[176]. Illustrated in colour. Map endpapers. 4to, green cloth spine with green paper covered boards, black titles to front and spine. "A beautiful photographic tour of the C&O (Chesapeake & Ohio) Canal, with mile-by-mile descriptions of the features, activities, landmarks for each section, and boat ramps for river access; Detailed information for hikers and bikers from Georgetown in DC to Cumberland in northwestern Maryland; Full coverage of all campsites along the canal; Maps of the canal; Useful mile-by-mile activity chart o features andlandmarks of the C&O Canal; Wildlife, trees, and rare and endangered speci es common to the Canal; Special extreme sports sections on kayaking, rock climbing, and mountain biking; Fishing the C&O Canal and the Upper Potomac River, sites and hotspots on area fishing; [and] A special section on the endangered status of the C&O Canal and the upper Potomac Rier, and the endangered status of the area's wildlife." - from the dust jacket. Very good in unclipped dust jacket. 30.00

Price: 30.00 CDN
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