CARLISLE, Rodney P.
Title: Sovereignty for Sale : The Origins and Evolution of the Panamanian and Liberian Flags of Convenience in dj.
Publisher:  Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, MA, 1981, ISBN:0870216686
Seller ID: 107979
CARLISLE, Rodney P. Sovereignty for Sale : The Origins and Evolution of thePanamanian and Liberian Flags of Convenience. Annapolis, Maryland : Naval Institute Press, (1981). First Edition. Pp (),[ix]-xvii,(),1-278. Illustrations, maps, tables in text. 8vo, blue cloth, silver lettering to spine. Mapend-papers. Papadakis and Glassner, International Law of the Sea and Mar i ne Affairs: A Bibliography : Supplement to the 1980 edition 2989, McConville and Rickaby, Shipping Busi ness and Maritime Economics: An Annotated International Bibliography 2326. "Here is a probing account of the merchant flag-of-convenience system that has contributed significantly to the erosion ot American merchant sea power. Rodney Carlisle dramatically documents the evolution of this system, beginning with the days of Prohibition when liquorsmugglers bypassed Canadian and American legal controls througn Panamanian registration of their ships. This system was perpetuated during trie Secon d World War when American-owned ships registered under Panamanian flags supplied the Allies, while U.S. neutrality law prevented such trade on ships flying the American flag. Carlisle explains how the Panamanian fleet was supplemented during World War II by the acquisition of confiscated European ships that did not meet U.S. standards. Following the war, however, the American-administered Liberian registry began to attract so many ships from Panama's fleet that by the late 1960s, Liberia had emerged as the largest maritime power in the world, as measured in registered tonnage. Sovereignty for Sale reveals how the boom in Middle Eastern oil production and the resultant growth of supertanker fleets registered under flags of conveience have further complicated the question of sov- ereignty over these ships. The system provides no clear assignment of responsibility for oil spills and other forms of ocean pollution. An analysis of the "effective control doctrine" (supported by the U.S.) raises chilling questions. Can the hundreds of American-owned vessels registered under the flags of Panama and Liberia be legally considered under U.S. control in the event of a military crisis? What role could these ships play and which nation's priorities would they serve? Carlisle points out that the United States may well be naive in presuming "special relationships" with Third World countries whose foreign policies may not coincide with America's in times of crisis. " -from the dust jacket. Chapters: 1. The Evolution of Convenience, 1919-25; 2. The System Refined; 3.Oil and Fruit; 4. Flag of Refuge; 5. Neutrality, 1939-41; 6. World War II; 7. The Origins of Liberia's Maritime Code, 1947-49; 8. Investigations; 9. Legal Assaults; 10. Environment and Energy; 11. Effective Control Doctrine under Fire. With Epilogue, Notes, Bibiiography and index. Penned underling and notes to first 10 pages, else clean, very good in dustjacket. 22.00