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1 LAKE, Atwell, Colonel WILLIAMS, William Fenwick, Sir LAKE, Henry Atwell, Colonel Sir Narrative of the Defence of Kars, Historical and Military. From Authentic Documents and from Notes Taken by the Several Officers Serving on the Staff of Her Majesty's Commissioner with the Ottoman Army in Asia Minor. First Edition.
Richard Bentley, London, 1857, 
LAKE, Atwell, Colonel. Narrative of the Defence of Kars, Historical and Military. By Colonel Atwell Lake, C.B., (unattached) ; One of Her Majesty's Aides-de-camp, and late of the Madras Engineers; from Authentic Documents and from Notes Taken by the Several Officers Serving on the Staff of Her Majesty's Commissioner with the Ottoman Army in Asia Minor. Illustrated by Lieut.-Colonel C. Teesdale, C.B., and William Simpson, Esq. London : Richard Bentley, 1857. First Edition. Pp (6),[vii]-xx,[1]-344, + tinted lithograph frontispiece + four tinted lithograph plates + 2 folding tinted lithographs in pouches. 8vo, original red pressed cloth, gilt lettering to spine.

Colonel Sir Henry Atwell Lake, K.C.B. (b. 25 December 1808 - d. 17 August 1881).

This volume is dedicated to and includes much on General Sir William Fenwick Williams, (b. 4 December 1800, Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia - d. 26 July 1883, London, England), later to be governor and lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia. See P.B. Waite's very interesting DCB article. Colonel Lake named his fifth son Spencer Fenwick Lake.

"On taking up a volume purporting to be a " Narrative of the Blockade of Kars," the general reader may very possibly ask the question, "What can we now be told on this subject with which we have not already been made acquainted ?" It is very true that several works have lately been published, giving an account of much that took place during the blockade ; but, as yet, no connected history of all that occurred in Asia Minor, having reference more particularly to the defence and ultimate surrender of Kars, has been offered to the public. [...]

A perusal of the following pages will show the reader that there has been no attempt at any flowery or overstrained description. My desire has been to state facts simply as they occurred, to bestow praise where it has appeared to be deserved, and to abstain (as far as is consistent with that truthfulness which is expected from every annalist) from throwing blame on those who may have reasons, unknown to me, for their actions. I consider it the duty of every Engineer Officer, as far as it lies in his power, to contribute, whenever an opportunity may occur, to the cause of science in fortification ; and there are few officers to be found who are unwilling to gain information, however trifling, from the experience of others. As regards the Defences of Kars, there may, perhaps, be no great novelty in their construction, but they, at least, contain a lesson upon the value of field-works, thrown up in great haste, and under difficulties of no ordinary nature.

My original intention was to write a purely professional work, trusting that it might be read with attention by members of the Corps of Engineers, both in the Royal and Indian Armies, as well as by other military officers, to whom, generally, the art of fortification has, of late years, become an interesting study ; but I was induced, at the solicitation of many whose opinions I value, to make the volume more comprehensive, by giving an account, in detail, of all that occurred in Asia Minor in connection with the operations at Kars. " - from Lake's March 1857 preface.


1. Appointment of General Williams as British Commissioner in Asia Minor — Officers of his Staff — Defeat of the Turks at Kuruk-Dere — State of the Ottoman Army at Kars — Corruption of the Pashas— Ismail Pasha — General Guyon — Muster of Turkish Troops — Condition of the Officers and Men — Major Teesdale — Kerim Pasha — State of the Garrison at Kars

2. Health of the Soldiers — Worthlessness of Shukri Pasha, Commandant—Merit of Kerim Pasha, second in command — Appointment of more British Officers — Colonel Lake arrives at Kars — Exertions of General Williams — Insurrection in Koordistan, suppressed by General Williams on his own responsibility — Surrender of Izzideen shere Bey.

3. Description of the Fortress of Kars in 1855 — New Works planned and executed by Colonel Lake.

4. Forti fications completed to a certain extent — Pontoon Bridges thrown across theriver — Duty of English Officers — Strength of the Garrison — Description of the manner in which promotion takes place in the Turkish Army — General Williams and his Aide-de-camp employed at Erzeroom — Routes by which Erzeroom is approachable from Kars — Fortifications at former place — Provisions sent to Kars — Reports of Russian advance — Arrival of Vassif Pasha — His character — Camp pitched at Kars.

5. Increase of Kars Garrison— Sickness very trifling — State of Hospital — Enrolment of Bashi-Bozouks — Laz Riflemen collected — Their character— Ramazan — Mushir's unwillingness to issue orders on the subject — He is at length persuaded to do so — Arrival of General Williams at Kars, June 7th — Intentions of Enemy no longer doubtful — HisMovements — Turkish Outposts attacked — Advance of Russians against the Lower Works, June lGth — Enemy repulsed and forced to retire — Account of Stores and Magazines — Grain at Kupri-keui taken by the Russians .

6. RussianArmy advances — Halts at Magharadjik — Appearance of the Force — Army of the Caucasus described — Enemy sends to Chiplakli and destroys Grain — Post taken — Private Letters sent into Garrison — Works extended and described — Staff of Kars Army — Feyzi Pasha — Commissariat — Peculation discovered —Townspeople are armed — Reconnaissance by the Enemy, 26th of June— Again on the 13th of July- General Mouravieff on the 1st of August proceeds towards the Soghanli-Dagh — His return to Kars .

7. Skirmishes take place daily — An Ambuscade is planned, and fails — Reasons given for passive resistance— Enemy attacks Kanli Tabia, August 7th, and is repulsed — Tachmasb Height s fortified still further — Other Works constructed — Stone Bridge thrown over Kars-Tchai — General Kmety — Hussein Pasha — Inner Line of Defence on the Plain — Construction of Fortifications necessarily rude.

8. Enemy pitches Camps at Boskali, Chalgour, and Ainalli — Desertion commences to take place — Punishment awarded — Deserter taken and Shot — Laz Eiflemen become mutinous — Their punishment — Horses sent away for want of food — Veli Pasha's Force — Correspondence between General Williams and Colonel Lake — Instructions given to Veli Pasha — Erivan Force advanced, and Veli Pasha retired — A Turkish Spy found and executed — Batoom Army — Heavy siege-guns arrive from Gumri — Kanli Tabia strengthened — Correspondence about Transport — Seven hundred Horses killed.

9. Garrison attacked by Cholera — Turkish medical subordinates not well educated — Post arrives September 23rd — News fromthe Crimea, and from Omer Pasha — His Advice to the Garrison — General Wil liams writes to Sheikh Shamyl, and receives an answer — Three British Officers arrive at Erzeroom — They attempt in vain to get to Kars — Their subsequent Movements.

10. The Enemy attacks Pennek — The Turks take to an ignominious flight — Captain Cameron's description of it— Disappearance of Ali Pasha — Pieasons for the Attack — Supposed connivance on the part of the Turks — Major Stuart and Captain Cameron remain at Erzeroom — Major Peel arrives September 21st — News of the fall of part of Sebastopol arrives at Erzeroom — Proceedings at Kars — The Blockade continues — The Cherkess and Assatin described — Cruelty to a child — Steps taken for protecting foraging parties.

11. The Enemy advances, September 29th — Preparations to resist the Attack — Action commences — Yarim-Ai Tabia taken — Yuksek Tabia in danger — General Kmιty — General Kavalieffsy killed— Vassif Pasha and Tek Tabias openfire — Fight at Tachmasb — Chasseurs — Attack on English Batteries — They are taken by the Enemy — Fire opened from Fort Lake and Karadagh — Reinforcements sent to former Battery — Enemy is driven out of English Batteries — Russians retreat.

12. Not a shot fired from the Citadel — Action continues at Tachmasb — Daring act of a Russian Battalion — Order given to the Enemy to retire — Retreat is commenced — Impossibility of pursuit — Gallant conductof Officers — Messrs. Zohrab and Rennison — Names of Officers who distinguished themselves — Conduct of Turkish Troops — Gallantry of the Enemy — Burial of the slain — General Williams notices conduct of his Staff — Probableloss on the side of the Enemy — Hospital arrangements — General Williams' official Despatch regarding the Battle.

13. Cholera again breaks out — Gloom spread over the Garrison — Omer Pasha's silence — Officers receive the Medjidiye — Turkish rank conferred on British Officers — Provisions begin torun short — Difficulty of sending out a Post — Evil resulting from neglect of orders — People caught in their attempt to escape from Ears — Turks found lying dead on the road — Increasing sickness of Troops — Addition to theWorks.

14. Parapets raised in places — Sentries withdrawn from the front — Reported advance of Selim and Omer Pashas — Effects of starvation — Cold becomes intense — Difficulty of carrying fuel to the Heights — Conduct of Feyzi Pasha — Enemy begins to hut himself — Attempts made to keep up the strength of the Troops — Annoyance from the Enemy at night — Garrison kept on the alert — Barrack constructed.

15. Orders sent to Erzeroom by General Williams — Interview between Major Stuart and Veli Pasha — The latter declines advancing without orders — He refuses to state the number of his Troops — The Condition of his Army — The State of Selim Pasha's Force — Veli Pasha at length advances — Major Stuart visits Selim Pasha — Reputed character of the latter — Excuses made by him for his delay — General Williams writes to him, and offers him some advice — He is urged in vain to advance — Impossibility of collecting Bashi-Bozouks.

16. English Officers continue to visit Selim Pasha daily — False account of expected reinforcement — Major Stuart writes to Selim Pasha — His reply, and statement of his Force — The Pasha's arguments not well founded — General Williams writes to Major Stuart — Mr. Consul Brant's opinion of Selim Pasha — He urges the expediency of sending up another General — Some account of Omer Pasha's movements — The feasibility of a retreat from Kars is discussed — It is at first decided upon — All hope of succour is at an end, and a retreat is at length found to be impossible — The vigilance of the Enemy is increased.

17. An Aide-de-camp is despatched with a flag of truce to the Russian Camp — General Williams visits General Mouravieff — He announces the surrender of Kars to Lord Clarendon — Terms of the capitulation — Approval of Her Majesty's Government — General Mouravieff appreciates a brave defence — Terms are approved of by the Mushir, but objected to at first by the Turkish Officers — All is at length arranged satisfactorily — Generals Kmety and Kollmann escape — Reception of the Turks by their Enemy — Destination of British Officers — Peace is concluded.

18. Reasons for endeavoring to hold Kars — Former Invasion of Asia Minor briefly described — Fall of Kars in 1828 — Conquests by the Russians in 1828-29 — The Position of Kars stronger than that of Erzeroom — Inexpediency of an early retreat — The results which would have followed — The probable loss which might have been expected.

19. The means which were undertaken for succouring Kars — Nothing required but food and ammunition to enable the Turks to hold Kars — Omer Pasha's first arrival on the coast — His movements — The rainy season puts a stop to his campaign — General Mouravieff continues to blockade Kars — The two courses which were open to Omer Pasha — Objections of the Consuls to the proposed plan — General Mouravieff's ideas on the subject — The opinion of Her Majesty's Government conveyed in Lord Clarendon's letter.

20. The practicability of the route between Trebizonde and Erzeroom — Particulars of the route — Letter on the subject from Mr. Consul Stevens — No necessity for heavy guns — An advance by way of Batoom considered — Objections to such a proceeding — General Mouravieff's ignorance of the amount of ammunition — Concluding remarks .

The illustrations: "Turkish Infantry Soldiers" (frontispiece); "Turkish Cavalry Soldiers" (opp. p.60); "Russian Bashi-Bazuks" (opp. p.91); "Russian Infantry Soldiers" (opp. p.100); "View of the Russian Camp at Chiftli-Kaya" (opp. p.294); "Plan of the Fortress of Kars" (folding plan, in front pouch); "View of the Town and Fortress of Kars" (large and folding, in rear pouch).
Spine newly repaired and restored, a few light stains to cloth, short tear to fortress plan, extra creases to folding view, else very good, clean and tight, with all tissue guards and the half-title. With bookplate of Toronto Anglican cleric, Henry James Grasset (1808-1882). 900.00

Price: 900.00 CDN
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