Ocean, Atmosphere and Life : Being the Second Volume of a Descriptive History of the Life of the Globe. First American Edition

By: RECLUS, Elisee

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RECLUS, Élisée. The Ocean, Atmosphere and Life : Being the Second Volume of a Descriptive History of the Life of the Globe. Illustrated by Two Hundred and Fifty Maps or Figures, and Twenty-Seven Page Maps Printed in Colors. New York : Harper & Brothers, Publishers, 1873. First American Edition. Pp (4),[7]-534,(2, publisher's ads),(2). 8vo (158 x 238 mm), brown cloth with bevelled edges, with gilt lettering to spine, gilt globe on front board.

Jacques Élisée Reclus (b. March 15, 1830, Sainte-Foy-la-Grande, France - d. July 4, 1905, Torhout, Belgium)

Contents :

Part I. The Ocean.
Book I. The Seas.
1. General Considerations.

2. Oceanic Basins. — Depth of the Seas. — Level of the Surface of the Ocean.

3. Composition of Sea- water. — Specific Weight. — Salt Marshes, Natural and Artificial. — Various Substances. — Differences of Saltness. — Marine Salt.

4. Various colours of Sea- water. — Reflections, Transparency, and Proper Colour. — Temperature of the Depths of the Sea.

5. Formation of Ice. — Ice-floes, Fields of Ice, and Icebergs. — Ice in the Baltic and the Black Sea.

6. Waves of the Sea. — Regular and Irregular Undulations. — Height of the Waves — Their Size and Speed. — Ground-swell. — Coast-waves.

Book II. Currents.
7. Great Movements of the Sea. — General Causes of Currents. — The Five Oceanic Rivers.

8. The Gulf-stream.— Influence of this Current on Climate.— Its Importance to Commerce.

9. Currents of the South Atlantic and the Indian Ocean. — Double Eddy of the Pacific Ocean.

10. Lateral Eddies. — Rennell's Current. — Counter-current in the Sea of the Antilles. — Equilibrium of the Waters in the Baltic, the Bosphorus, at the Entrances to the Mediterranean and the Red Sea. — Exchange of Water and Salt between the Seas.

Book III. The Tides.

11. Oscillations of the Level of the Seas.— Theory of the Tides.

12. Theory of Whewell on the Origin and Propagation of Tidal Waves. — Origin of the Tide in each Oceanic Basin. — "Establishment" of Ports. — " Cotidal " Lines.

13. Apparent Irregularities of the Tides. — Extraordinary size of the Tidal Wave in certain Bays. — Interference of Ebb and Flow. — Diurnal Tides. — Inequalities of Successive Tides.

14. Tidal Currents. — Races and Whirlpools. — Tidal Eddies.— River Tides. 15. Ebb and Flow in Lakes and Inland Seas.— Currents of the Euripus. — Scylla and Charybdis.

Book IV. The Shores and Islands.
16. Incessant Modifications of the Coast-line. — The Fjords of Scandinavia and other Countries near the Poles.

17. Filling up of the Fjords by Marine and Fluvial Alluvium.

18. Destruction of Cliffs.- The Coasts of the Channel.— The Straits of Dover. — Action of Shingle and Sand. — Giants' Cauldrons. — Spouting Wells on the Coasts.— Tidal Wells.

19. Undermining of Rocks. — Varied aspect of Cliffs. — Platforms at their Bases. — Resistance of the Coasts. — Breakwaters formed by the Rubbish. — Heligoland. — Destruction of Low Shores.

20. Normal Form of Shores. — Curves of "Greatest Stability." — Formation of New Shores. — Coast Ridges and Sand-banks. — Inland Bays.

21. Shallows of the Coast. — Deposit from Calcareous Rocks. — Appearance of Strands and Beaches.

22. Origin of Islands. — Islands of Continental Origin. — Rocks of the Shores. — Islands of Depression, Elevation, and Erosion. — Islands of Oceanic Origin.— Atolls and Volcanos.

Book V. The Dunes.
23. Dunes resulting from the decomposition of Rocks. — Formation of Moving Dunes on the Sea-shore. — Symmetrical disposition of Ridges of Sand.

24. Height of the Hillocks. — Advance of the Dunes. — Displacement of "'Etangs." — Disappearance of Villages.

25. Obstacles opposed by Nature to the Progress of Dunes.— Fixation of the Sands by Seeds.

Part II. The Atmosphere and Meteorology.
Book I. The Air and the Winds.

1. Air the Agent of the Vital Circulation of the Planet. — Phenomena of Reflection and Refraction. — Mirage.

2. Weight of the Air. — Height of the Upper Strata. — Barometric Measures.

3. Mean Pressure of the Atmosphere under various Latitudes. — Density of the Air in the Northern Hemisphere. — Diurnal Oscillations of the Barometrical Column. — Annual Oscillations. — Irregular Variations. — Iso-barometric Lines.

4. General Law of the Circulation of Winds. — Trade-winds from the North-east and South-east. — Equatorial Calms. — Oscillation of the System of Winds.

5. Counter Trade-winds or Eeturning Winds.

6. The Trade-winds of the Continents. — The Monsoons. — Etesian Winds.

7. Land and Sea Breezes. — Winds from the Mountains. — Solar Breezes — Local Winds — The Simoon, Scirocco, Foehn, Tempests, and Mistral.

8. Zone of Variable Winds. — Struggle of Opposing Winds. — Mean Direction of the Atmospheric Currents. — Law of Gyration.

Book II. Hurricanes and Whirlwinds.
9. Aerial Eddies. — Cyclones of the Equatorial Regions. — The " Great Hurricane".
10. Speed of the Revolving Masses of Air. — Speed of the Cyclone. — Fall of the Barometric Column. — Irregularities of the Wind in the Path of the Cyclone.

11. Spiral of the Hurricanes in the Two Hemispheres. — Theory of Cyclones. — Nautical Instructions to avoid Hurricanes.

12. Eddies of Tempests. — Whirlwinds. Book III. Clouds and Rain.

13. The Vapor of Water. — The Moisture of the Air. — Absolute Moisture and relative Moisture.

14. Formation of Mists and Clouds. — Height, Thickness, Form, and Aspect of Clouds.

15. Influence of the Winds on the Formation of Snow and Rain. — Distribution of Rain over Plains and Mountains.

16. Tropical Rains. — Rainy and Dry Seasons — Periodicity of Rains.

17. Rains beyond the Tropics. — Winter Rains. — Rains of Spring and Autumn. — Summer Rains.— Rains of the Polar Regions.

18. Countries without Rain. — Geological action of Rains. — Contrast of the two Hemispheres.

Book IV. Thunder-storms, Auroras, Maganetic Currents.
19. Height of Thunder-clouds. — Distribution of Thunder-storms in various Regions of the Earth. — Cause of these Phenomena.

20. Polar Auroras.

21. Terrestrial Magnetism. — Declination, Inclination, and Intensity of the Movements of the Needle. — Magnetic Poles and Equator. — Isogonal Lines and their Secular, Annual, and Diurnal Variations. — Isoclinal Lines. — Isodynamic Lines.

Book V. Climates.
22. Solar Heat. — Irregularities of Local Climates. — Equalization of the Temperature below the Surface of the Ground.

23. Contrast between the Climates of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, between those of the Eastern and Western Sides of Continents, those of the Coasts and the Interior of Countries, and of Mountains and Plains.

24. Isothermal Lines. — Thermal Equator — Poles of Cold. — Increase of Temperature toward the Poles. — Open Seas.

25. Extremes of Temperature. — Isochimenal and Isotheral Lines. — Daily and monthly Variations. — Decrease of Warmth in the upper Strata of the Air. — Variations of Climate during the Historical Period.

Part III. Life.

Book I. The Earth and Its Flora.
1. The Assemblage of living Creatures. — Number of Vegetable Species. — Proportion of Dicotyledons, Monocotyledons, and Cryptogams. — Forests and Savannas.

2. Influence of Temperature, Moisture, and Solar Kays on Vegetation. — Distribution of Plants.

3. Particular Habitats of Species. — Salt-water and Fresh-water Plants. — Littoral Species. — Parasites. — Terrestrial Species. — Influence of the Soil on Vegetation. — Plants associated together. — Sea-weed. — Extent of Areas.

4. Contrast of the Floras in the different parts of the World. — Insular and continental Floras. — Increasing richness of Vegetation in the direction from the Poles to the Equator.

5. Distribution of Vegetation on the Slopes of Mountains. — Mingling of the different Floras. — Upper limits of the Plants in various parts of the World. — Irregularities in the Vertical Distribution of Plants.

6. Unconnected Species. — Displacement of Areas in consequence of Geological Changes. — Plants of Great Britain. — Naturalization. — Incessant Modification of Floras.

Book II. The Land and Its Fauna.
7. Origin of Life. — Species of Animals. — Multitude of Organisms. — Contrasts of Land and Sea.

8. The Oceanic Fauna.

9. Influence of Climate and physical Conditions on the Species of Animals.

10. Food of Animal Species. — Contrast of Faunas. — Areas of Habitation.— Changes in the Surface of the Areas. — Birth and Disappearance of Species.

11. Great Terrestrial Faunas. — Homoiozoic Zones.

12. Distribution of Species on the Slopes of Mountains and in the Depths of the Sea.

13. Geological Labors of certain Animal Species. — Coral Reefs and Islands.

Book III. Earth and Man.
14. The Influence of Nature on the Destiny of Mankind. — Antiquity of the Human Race on the Earth. — Monogenists and Polygenists. — Fusion of Human Races.

15. Influence of Climate. — Tropical Zone. — Frigid Zone. — Temperate Zone.

16. Influence of the raised Outline of the Earth on Mankind. — Tablelands, Mountains, Hills, and Plains.

17. Influence of the Sea and running Waters. — Traveling and Commercial Nations. — Islands and Islanders.

18. Blending of different Climates. — The Influence of Civilization on the Features of a Country.

19. The course of History. — Harmony existing between Countries and the Nations inhabiting them.

Book IV. The Work of Man.
20. Reaction of Man on Nature. — Exploration of the Globe — Voyages of Discovery. — Ascents of Mountains.

21. Reclamation of the Earth by Cultivation. — Ancient and modern Irrigation.

22. The Culture of Marshes. — Drainage of the Ground in the Country and Towns.

23. The Draining of Lakes and Inlets of the Sea. — The Lake of Copais, the Lake of Fucino, the Sea of Haarlem, the Zuyder Zee. — Polders. — The Purification of Saline Marshes.

24. Dikes on the Sea-shore. — Points of Defense. — Point-de-Grave.

25. Natural and artificial Ways of Communication. — Sea-shores, Deserts, and Savannas. — Rivers, Canals, and Railways. — Bridges and Viaducts. — The cutting through Isthmuses. — The Suez Canal. — The Isthmuses of Central America.

26. The industrial Power of Man. — The Electric Telegraph. — Possession taken of the Sea. — Cultivation of Oysters.

27. Comparative Harmlessness of Hurricanes. — Prevision of Weather. — Modification of Climates effected by the Labor of Man.

28. Influence of Man on the Flora and Fauna of a Country. — Encroachment effected by the more common Species. — Extension given by Agriculture to certain cultivated Species.

29. Influence of Man on the Beauty of the Earth. — Disfigurement and Embellishment of the Land. — The diverse Action of different Nations. — The Appreciation of Nature. — The Progress of Mankind.


Light wear to spine ends and corners, name, some spotting, else very good. 100.00

Title: Ocean, Atmosphere and Life : Being the Second Volume of a Descriptive History of the Life of the Globe. First American Edition

Author Name: RECLUS, Elisee

Categories: 82,

Publisher: Harper & Brothers, New York, 1873,: 1873

Seller ID: 104943